Fabric Process

The Manufacturing Process of Fabric

Fabric refers to any textile material made through weaving, knitting, flame retardation, scotch guard treatment etc.The term fabric has its origin in the Latin term fabrica meaning a workshop. It means that which is put together like building. Fabric can be classified based on various criteria. On the basis of fiber used for manufacturing, it can be classified as natural fabrics such as cashmere, cotton, hemp, jute, linen, ramie, silk, wool and synthetic or man-made fabrics like acetate, acrylic, chiffon, denim, georgette, lastex, nylon, organza, polyester fabrics, rayon, satin, velvet etc. It can also be categorized on the basis of its usage for making apparel, curtains, upholstery among others.



Steps required for fabric production are mentioned below:

Raw Material Purchased from Outside

Weaving is a major process of making fabric or cloth . In it, two distinct sets of yarns called the warp and the filling or weft are interlaced with each other to form a fabric. Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers. The lengthwise yarns which run from the back to the front of the loom are called the warp. The crosswise yarns are the filling or weft. A loom is a device for holding the warp threads in place while the filling threads are woven through them. Yarns made from natural fibers like cotton, silk, and wool and synthetic fibers such as nylon and Orlon are commonly used for weaving textile. But other fibers can also be used for weaving. Yarn intended for the warp goes through operations such as spooling, warping and slashing to prepare them to withstand the strain of the weaving process.

Yarn

Yarn is the basic requirement of any textile, apparel or related industry. The manufacturers require fibers, yarns and threads according to the product they manufacture. Thus, the fiber manufacturers keep in mind the demands of natural fibers as well as of synthetic fibers. As far as yarns are concerned, there are different categories available in the market such as material yarn, yarn by fiber, and yarn by making process.



Weaving Process

Weaving is a major process of making fabric or cloth . In it, two distinct sets of yarns called the warp and the filling or weft are interlaced with each other to form a fabric. Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers. The lengthwise yarns which run from the back to the front of the loom are called the warp. The crosswise yarns are the filling or weft. A loom is a device for holding the warp threads in place while the filling threads are woven through them. Yarns made from natural fibers like cotton, silk, and wool and synthetic fibers such as nylon and Orlon are commonly used for weaving textile. But other fibers can also be used for weaving. Yarn intended for the warp goes through operations such as spooling, warping and slashing to prepare them to withstand the strain of the weaving process.



Knitting Process

Knitted fabric is a textile that results from knitting. Its properties are distinct from woven fabric in that it is more flexible and can be more readily constructed into smaller pieces, making it ideal for seats.

Its properties are distinct from nonwoven fabric in that it is more durable but takes more resources to create, making it suitable for multiple uses.

It is a known fact that the main material for fabric construction is yarn. Knitting is the second most frequently used method, after weaving, that turns yarns or threads into fabrics. It is a versatile technique that can make fabrics having various properties such as wrinkle-resistance, stretchability, better fit, particularly demanded due to the rising popularity of home furnishings. The yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path , forming symmetric loops or stitches. When the interlocking loops run lengthwise, each row is called a wale. A wale can be compared with the warp in weaving. When the loops run across the fabric, each row is called a course. A course corresponds to the filling, or weft. There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting and warp knitting. In weft knitting, one continuous yarn forms courses across the fabric. In warp knitting, a series of yarns form wales in the lengthwise direction of the fabric.



Nonwoven Fabrics

Nonwoven fabrics are made by bonding or interlocking fibers or filaments by Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical or Solvent means. For making Staple non-woven, fibers are first spun, cut to a few centimeters length, and put into bales. These bales are then scattered on a conveyor belt, and the fibers are spread in a uniform web by a wet laid process or by carding. These nonwovens are either bonded thermally or by using resin. The Spun laid non-wovens are made in one continuous process. Fibers are spun and then directly dispersed into a web by deflectors or with air streams. Melt blown nonwovens have extremely fine fiber diameters but are not strong fabrics. Spun laid is also bonded either thermally or by using resin. Both staple and spun bonded non-wovens would have no mechanical resistance without the bonding step.







Process Flow Chart For 100% Polyester Dyeing







Foam Lamination

The lamination of foam to different substrates is either achieved using either adhesive lamination or flame lamination.

In adhesive foam lamination, as the name implies, adhesives are used to attach the foam to the substrate.

In flame foam lamination a flame front is used to attach the foam to the substrate. One example of flame laminated foam would be the lamination of foam to a fabric substrate in the production of headliners for automobiles.

In either case, foams can be attached to substrates to form bi- or tri-laminates.





Coating

“A material composed of two or more layers, at least one of which is a textile fabric and at least one of which is a substantially continuous polymeric layer.”

This Polymeric layer is applied in liquid form in a solvent or water base, which evaporates off to leave the polymer behind, applied to one or both surfaces. Dependant upon the application method the liquid may require thickening so it does not soak through the fabric, or an anti-foaming agent to aid processing. The thickness of the coating, or amount of product applied is controlled. Bonding occurs either through the drying process (evaporation) or through a curing process, required to provoke crosslinking.





Flame Retardants: Textile Finishes for Flame Resistant Fabrics

As the whole environment is going highly technical and risky, the demand for specially treated textile such as flame resistant fabric has grown significantly. In the process of meeting with these demands, synthetic fiber has played a significant role. Simply defined, flame retardants are materials that have the quality of inhibiting or resisting the spread of fire. Textile is highly ignitable and contribute to rapid fire spread. However, the ignitable property of a textile can be considerably reduced by any one of the three methods- by using inorganic materials such as Asbestos, Glass etc; by chemically treating the textile with flame retardant chemicals; and by modifying the polymer.





Scotchgard fabric (Water Repellant)

Protect the things you love with Scotchgard protected Fabric. Whether it's a brand-new seats, or your little wall, Scotchgard protected Fabric helps repel liquids and block stains without changing the look and feel of the fabric. That means you can wipe the surface clean before the mess sinks in for beautiful, long-lasting using. So host a family get-together, or your sofa with confidence knowing that Scotchgard protected fabric is your secret defender from life's little mishaps.